The analysis of the functional correlates of "brain oscillations" has become an important branch of neuroscience. Although research on the functional correlates of brain oscillation has progressed to a high level, studies on cognitive disorders are rare and mainly limited to schizophrenia patients. The present review includes the results of the changes in brain oscillations in patients with Alzheimer's, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, mild cognitive impairment, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), alcoholism and those with genetic disorders. Furthermore, the effects of pharmaca and the influence of neurotransmitters in patients with cognitive disorders are also reviewed. Following the review, a short synopsis is given related to the analysis of brain oscillations. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.