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Publication Metadata onlyA breakthrough in neuroscience needs a "Nebulous Cartesian System" Oscillations, quantum dynamics and chaos in the brain and vegetative system(ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 2007-04) Güntekin, Bahar; BAŞAR, EROL; TR142226; TR204666The Cartesian System is a fundamental conceptual and analytical framework related and interwoven with the concept and applications of Newtonian Dynamics. In order to analyze quantum processes physicist moved to a Probabilistic Cartesian System in which the causality principle became a probabilistic one. This means the trajectories of particles (obeying quantum rules) can be described only with the concept of cloudy wave packets. The approach to the brain-body-mind problem requires more than the prerequisite of modem physics and quantum dynamics. In the analysis of the brain-body-mind construct we have to include uncertain causalities and consequently multiple uncertain causalities. These multiple causalities originate from (1) nonlinear properties of the vegetative system (e.g. irregularities in biochemical transmitters, cardiac output, turbulences in the vascular system, respiratory apnea, nonlinear oscillatory interactions in peristalsis); (2) nonlinear behavior of the neuronal electricity (e.g. chaotic behavior measured by EEG), (3) genetic modulations, and (4) additional to these physiological entities nonlinear properties of physical processes in the body. The brain shows deterministic chaos with a correlation dimension of approx. D-2=6, the smooth muscles approx. D-2=3. According to these facts we propose a hyper-probabilistic approach or a hyper-probabilistic Cartesian System to describe and analyze the processes in the brain-body-mind system. If we add aspects as our sentiments, emotions and creativity to this construct, better said to this already hyper-probabilistic construct, this "New Cartesian System" is more than hyper-probabilistic, it is a nebulous system, we can predict the future only in a nebulous way; however, despite this chain of reasoning we can still provide predictions on brain-body-mind incorporations. We tentatively assume that the processes or mechanisms of the brain-body-mind system can be analyzed and predicted similar to the metaphor of '' finding the walking path in a cloudy or foggy day". This is meant by stating "The Nebulous Cartesian System" (NCS). Descartes, at his time undertaking his genius step, did not possess the knowledge of today's physiology and modem physics; we think that the time has come to consider such a New Cartesian System. To deal with this, we propose the utilization of the Heisenberg S-Matrix and a modified version of the Feynman Diagrams which we call "Brain Feynman Diagrams". Another metaphor to consider within the oscillatory approach of the NCS is the "string theory". We also emphasize that fundamental steps should be undertaken in order to create the own dynamical framework of the brain-body-mind incorporation; suggestions or metaphors from physics and mathematics are useful; however, the grammar of the brains intrinsic language must be understood with the help of a new biologically founded, adaptive-probabilistic Cartesian system. This new Cartesian System will undergo mutations and transcend to the philosophy of Henri Bergson in parallel to the Evolution theory of Charles Darwin to open gateways for approaching the brain-body-mind problem. (c) 2006 Published by Elsevier B.V.