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Publication Metadata onlyA breakthrough in neuroscience needs a "Nebulous Cartesian System" Oscillations, quantum dynamics and chaos in the brain and vegetative system(ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 2007-04) Güntekin, Bahar; BAŞAR, EROL; TR142226; TR204666The Cartesian System is a fundamental conceptual and analytical framework related and interwoven with the concept and applications of Newtonian Dynamics. In order to analyze quantum processes physicist moved to a Probabilistic Cartesian System in which the causality principle became a probabilistic one. This means the trajectories of particles (obeying quantum rules) can be described only with the concept of cloudy wave packets. The approach to the brain-body-mind problem requires more than the prerequisite of modem physics and quantum dynamics. In the analysis of the brain-body-mind construct we have to include uncertain causalities and consequently multiple uncertain causalities. These multiple causalities originate from (1) nonlinear properties of the vegetative system (e.g. irregularities in biochemical transmitters, cardiac output, turbulences in the vascular system, respiratory apnea, nonlinear oscillatory interactions in peristalsis); (2) nonlinear behavior of the neuronal electricity (e.g. chaotic behavior measured by EEG), (3) genetic modulations, and (4) additional to these physiological entities nonlinear properties of physical processes in the body. The brain shows deterministic chaos with a correlation dimension of approx. D-2=6, the smooth muscles approx. D-2=3. According to these facts we propose a hyper-probabilistic approach or a hyper-probabilistic Cartesian System to describe and analyze the processes in the brain-body-mind system. If we add aspects as our sentiments, emotions and creativity to this construct, better said to this already hyper-probabilistic construct, this "New Cartesian System" is more than hyper-probabilistic, it is a nebulous system, we can predict the future only in a nebulous way; however, despite this chain of reasoning we can still provide predictions on brain-body-mind incorporations. We tentatively assume that the processes or mechanisms of the brain-body-mind system can be analyzed and predicted similar to the metaphor of '' finding the walking path in a cloudy or foggy day". This is meant by stating "The Nebulous Cartesian System" (NCS). Descartes, at his time undertaking his genius step, did not possess the knowledge of today's physiology and modem physics; we think that the time has come to consider such a New Cartesian System. To deal with this, we propose the utilization of the Heisenberg S-Matrix and a modified version of the Feynman Diagrams which we call "Brain Feynman Diagrams". Another metaphor to consider within the oscillatory approach of the NCS is the "string theory". We also emphasize that fundamental steps should be undertaken in order to create the own dynamical framework of the brain-body-mind incorporation; suggestions or metaphors from physics and mathematics are useful; however, the grammar of the brains intrinsic language must be understood with the help of a new biologically founded, adaptive-probabilistic Cartesian system. This new Cartesian System will undergo mutations and transcend to the philosophy of Henri Bergson in parallel to the Evolution theory of Charles Darwin to open gateways for approaching the brain-body-mind problem. (c) 2006 Published by Elsevier B.V. Publication Metadata onlyBrain Oscillations Differentiate the Picture of One's Own Grandmother(ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 2007-04) Özgören, Murat; Öniz, Adile; Schmiedt, Christina; Başar-Eroğlu, Canan; BAŞAR, EROL; TR142226; TR143075; TR59951; TR186954The present report introduces, as a first study, the concept and methods of oscillatory brain dynamics to analyze well-known (familiar) and unfamiliar face processing in the 800 ms following a face presentation. We analyzed event-related oscillations in young, healthy subjects (N=26) by using three types of stimulation: (1) a simple light signal, (2) the picture of the face of an anonymous elderly lady and (3) the picture of the subjects' own grandmother. We found a number of significant peak to peak amplitude measures in all frequency bands in the time period of 0-500 ms, allowing a differentiation between perception of the subjects' own grandmother, the unknown elderly face and the light stimulation. The results showed increased event-related oscillatory responses elicited by the unknown face compared to the known grandmother a) in the theta responses (4-8 Hz) at T-6 (46%), b) in the gamma (28-48 Hz) responses at C-z (22%) and C-3 (38%) and c) in the beta responses at F-4 (46%), C-z (47%) and P-3 (105%). In contrast, the subjects' own grandmother elicited 20% increased fast theta (6-8 Hz) oscillations at F-4 compared to the unknown face. Delta responses dissociated face from simple light processing, as reflected in the observation of approx. 50% higher amplitudes at the occipital compared to the frontal locations during face perception. We conclude that the described multiple brain oscillations clearly differentiate the known and unknown faces with varied degrees of selective-responsiveness in a short time window between 0 and 800 ms. Furthermore, the results are in conceptual accordance with the "selectively distributed processing" hypothesis. (c) 2006 Published by Elsevier B.V. Publication Metadata onlyBrain Oscillations Evoked by the Face of a Loved Person(ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 2008-06-12) Schmiedt-Fehr, Christina; Öniz, Adile; Başar Eroğlu, Canan; BAŞAR, EROL; TR59951; TR142226Previous studies have shown a close interrelation between emotional processing and memory processes using facial stimuli and applying the concept of oscillatory brain dynamics. Amending prior findings the influence of neural correlates related to the emotional state termed "romantic love" was investigated. Specifically, the effect of feelings of love on face perception was of interest. Pictures of a "loved person" were presented to female subjects and the elicited responses were compared with responses to pictures showing faces of a "known and appreciated person" or an "unknown person" during EEG recordings (n=20 females). As a control condition light stimulation was employed. The sequence of faces shown was presented in random and block-design. EEG data was analyzed considering maximum amplitudes and topographical differences within the conventional frequency bands of delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma. Differences between light and face stimuli were found in the delta and theta bands and differences between the face types and the two designs were found in the delta band. The delta response to the picture of the "loved person" showed significantly higher amplitude values, not only in comparison with the "unknown person", but also with the picture of the "appreciated person". Frontal lobes appear to react to different types of facial stimuli with specific increases in delta responses. The difference between the response to the "loved person" and of the "known and appreciated person" reflects the component of the emotion denoted as love. The findings and their interpretations are discussed within the framework of event-related oscillations and complex stimulus processing emphasizing the concept of dynamic localization. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier B.V. Publication Metadata onlyEmotional Face Expressions are Differentiated With Brain Oscillations(ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 2007-04) Güntekin, Bahar; BAŞAR, EROL; TR204666; TR142226The differentiation of "facial expressions" is a process of higher mental activity, which has considerable applications in "psychology of moods and emotions". We applied the approach of event-related oscillations (EROs) to investigate the modulation of electrical manifestations related to emotional expression in EEG recordings of 20 healthy subjects. EROs of "neutral, angry and happy" faces in 13 electrical recordings sites (F-3, F-4, C-z, C-3, C-4, T-3, T-4, T-5, T-6, P-3, P-4, O-1, O-2) were analyzed. Following the recording session, the subjects were asked to express the degree of their emotional involvement (valence and arousal) using the Self-Assessment Manikin ratings. Amplitude frequency characteristics (AFCs) were used to determine the frequencies of interest and the ranges for digital pass-band filtering applied accordingly. Consecutively, peak to peak amplitude measures of oscillatory responses were computed for the selected frequency bands and for the differentiation of the different stimuli. A differentiation between angry and happy facial expressions was observed especially in the alpha (9-13 Hz) and beta (15-24 Hz) frequencies, however, only when selecting stimuli with high mood involvement. Therefore, these frequency bands are the main focus of this report. The amplitudes of the alpha responses upon angry face stimulation were significantly higher than upon presentation of the happy faces at posterior locations. At F3, C, and C3, beta responses upon angry face stimulation were significantly higher in amplitude compared with the happy face stimulation. It is discussed that the frontal theta response is highly increased in comparison to all theta responses also encountered in studies of face recognition: During observation of facial expression, the occipital theta is much higher. We conclude and emphasize that the analysis of brain oscillatory responses distributed over the scalp in combination with subjective ratings of emotional impact of stimuli provide a good basis for analysing the influence of emotional information processing in the brain. In congruence with others, the results support the phylogenetical viewpoint suggesting that angry face stimulations are faster and more ample in responding. Furthermore, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes seem to be involved in processing of facial expressions, as reflected in an ensemble of different frequency brain oscillatory responses distributed over the scalp. (c) 2006 Published by Elsevier B.V. Publication Metadata onlyPrinciples of Oscillatory Brain Dynamics and a Treatise of recognition of Faces and Facial Expressions(ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, SARA BURGERHARTSTRAAT 25, PO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 2006) Öniz, Adile; BAŞAR, EROL; TR142226; TR204666; TR59951The research of event-related oscillations is one of fast-growing fields in neuroscience. In this study, a theory of the "whole-brain-work," which can be useful for functional interpretation of brain oscillations, is presented together with its application to recognition of faces and facial expressions. Following results are summarized: (1) Mechanisms leading to the perception of the grandmother picture are manifested with parallel activations of neural assemblies in different cortical locations and as superposition of delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations. Known and anonymous faces can be differentiated by means of oscillatory brain dynamics. Percepts cannot be localized in a given specific region. The differentiation of facial expression induces significant change in alpha and theta oscillation. (2) While the importance of fMRI in object recognition is clear, this method has low temporal resolution. Our results shows that multiple brain oscillations clearly differentiate the known and unknown faces with varied degrees of selective-responsiveness in a short time window between 0 and 800 ins, thus completing and implementing the analysis of percepts in the dynamic window and indicating a broader distribution at the cortex. (3) The presented evidence of selectively distributed multiple oscillations for differentiation of facial percepts is in conceptual accordance with the "selectively distributed processing" in neurocognitive networks of Goldman-Rakic, Fuster, and of Mesulam. The large-scale approach of several investigators is also confirmed with the new results. On facial stimuli, a given location can show a considerable selected activation, but the formation of percepts is manifested by multiple oscillations with differentiated weight in large neural populations. (4) The most important feature of the comparison of percepts of grandmother and anonymous faces is the existence of a variety of significant differences in delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma responses between the anonymous and grandmother faces in frontal, central, parietal, temporal, and occipital sites. (5) The brain response is a construct in a multi-dimensional state manifested by amplitudes of oscillatory responses, topological coordinates, and changes in the time axis following presentation of the percepts including delays and prolongations, coherence between locations. Only a new metrics embracing all these parameters can be representative for dynamics of functionality in the brain. The conceptual aspects of this new scope are explained in the presented theory.