- PublicationOpen AccessWillow: Leaves, wood and bark: Problems of growth and differentation(İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2008) Kefeli, V.; Leininger, C.; Rehn, B.; Shwarz, K.The growth of woody plants as perennial organisms is based on the long lasting process of organs elongation and differentiation. This process proceeds on rhythmic activity of plant meristems and cambium formation. The growth is succeeded by wood and bark differentiation as well as carbon polymers formation (mostly cellulose, starch and lignin). These secondary substances are formed from the primary products of photosynthesis. Roots also play an important role of stem elongation and leaves formation. In our experimental work we investigated such basal processes as leaves growth; growth and differentiation of stems and roots regeneration.
- PublicationOpen AccessThe role of free radicals in ethiopathogenesis of diseases(İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2008) Gürkan, HakanFree radicals can be defined as atoms or molecules containing one or more unpaired electrons in their orbitals. Their formation occurs continuously in the cells as a consequence of both enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions. It has been estimated that the average person has around 10000–20000 free radicals attacking each body cell each day. Some free radicals are good in that they enable your body to fight inflammation, kill bacteria, and control the tone of smooth muscles, which regulate the working of internal organs and blood vessels. On the other hand increased or uncontrolled free radical activity might combine with other factors to cause some diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, heart disease, cancers etc. The balance between the production of free radicals and the antioxidant defences in the body has important health implications. Under the normal conditions the antioxidant defense system within the body can easily handle free radicals that are produced. If there are too many free radicals produced and too few antioxidants, this may cause chronic damage. The aim of this study is review the data on diseases which may be linked to free radicals in order to clarify the role of them in ethiopathogenesis of these diseases.
- PublicationOpen AccessSpatial arrangement of the animal male germ cell genome: III. A new experimental evidences in support of the Megarosette-loop model of spatial organization of chromosomes in Drosophila sperm genome(İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2008) Alexandrov, Igor; Alexandrova, Margarita V.; Stepanenko, Victor A.; Korablinova, Svetlana V.; Korovina, Larisa N.; Stetsenko, Stanislav G.The data on the non-random pattern of induction of the black (b) inversions in autosome 2 after action of γ-rays of 60Co or 0.85 MeV fission neutrons on Drosophila mature spermatozoa were described and 2D model of spatial arrangement of this autosome in sperm nucleus at the time of irradiation based on these data was presented. The main features of this model found to be entirely consistent with the chromosome macroarchitecture proposed earlier on the basis of data for the vestigial (vg) inversions at the same autosome. A general 2D and 3D models for the specific megarosette-loop structure of autosome in question with both sets of the inversion data were constructed validity of which was independently confirmed by the induction patterns of inversions not associated with the locus-specific mutations under study. It is stated that there are all reasons to believe that all other chromosomes in sperm genome have the same spatial macroarchitecture as the most compact and suitable one to pass on the genetic information from one generation to another. It is particularly emphasized that large-scale chromosome geometry proposed is fundamentally unlike Rabl’s configuration of interphase chromosomes in animal somatic cells. The conversion of Rabl’s configuration to megarosetteloop structure is presumed to keep pace with protein remodeling of chromatin in late spermiogenesis.
- PublicationOpen AccessSome molecular studies related to leaf rolling in Ctenanthe Setosa(İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2008) Terzi, Rabiye; Sağlam, AykutThe changes in total RNA content under drought stress condition that eventually causes leaf rolling was investigated in Ctenanthe setosa, a member of Marantaceae family in Zingiberales. Degree of leaf rolling (%) and total RNA content were measured under drought stress condition. It was determined that total RNA content decreased while degree of leaf rolling was increasing. In addition, partial sequence of small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) of Ctenanthe setosa was determined to use as a control marker in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) during molecular studies. When compared with presumably functional sequences, 18S rDNA partial sequence of Ctenanthe setosa shows greater complete sequence similarity of 18S small subunits of Marantochloa atropurpurea, Maranta bicolor and Calathea loeseneri which are the members of same family. Obtained sequence also resembled Strelitzia nicolai and Phenakospermum guyannense belonging another family, Strelitziaceae from Zingiberales order. In addition, it seemed like to Ravenala madagascariensis, Musa acuminate, Heliconia indica, Orchidantha fimbriata and Orchidantha siamensis from same order. These results have been pointed out that obtained 18S rDNA partial sequence is true for Ctenanthe setosa.
- PublicationOpen AccessFatty acid and amino acid profiles in the fruits of Prunus spinosa L. subsp. dasyphylla (Schur) Domin from Europe-in- Turkey(İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2008) Özcan, Tamer; Bayçu, GülrizFatty acid and amino acid compositions were determined in the fruits of Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla with GC and amino acid analyser. Total oil (0.22%) and total protein (1.35%) were quantified in lower levels. Major fatty acids were palmitic (34%), oleic (20.85%) and stearic acids (16.20%), respectively. Linoleic (6.07%), eicosatrioneic (3.17%), α-linolenic (1.95%), gamma-linolenic (1.76%), myristic (1.61%), arachidic (1.17%) and lauric acids (1.10%) exhibited the lower concentrations. The other fatty acids were examined below 1%. Total percentage of the saturated fatty acids were observed higher (56.56%) compare to the unsaturated fatty acids (35.68%). Total concentration of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 22.73% and 12.95% respectively. Valuable ratio of linoleic: α-linolenic acid (3.103) were detected with respect to dietary reference for fatty acid intake. Amino acid concentrations ranged from 356.7 (aspartic acid) to 47.6 (threonin) (mg/100 g dry wt.). The highest values among essential amino acids were obtained in leucin (122.6), isoleucine (99.2), valine (87.8) and phenylalanin (84.7). Tyrosin (51.3) and lysine (50.6) were quantified at the lowest levels. All essential amino acids were observed in sufficient levels compared to FAO reference values for life stage groups. Investigated traits in the fruits of Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla may be useful in explaining the natural product potential and taxonomical variations based on different populations.