Publication Metadata onlyFunctional Bandaging in Children with Idiopathic Toe-Walking(NLM (Medline), 2023) Tuncer, Deniz; AKALAN, NAZİF EKİN; Çalışkan, M. Mine; Temelli, Yener; Yiğit, PakizeBackground: Idiopathic toe-walking (ITW) is a persistent gait pattern with no known etiology characterized as premature heel rise or no heel contact. We investigated the effects of functional bandaging in children with ITW on heel contact during stance phase and on gait quality. Methods: Nineteen children aged 4 to 16 years with ITW and ten age-matched healthy children were included in the study. Elastic adhesive bandages were applied to children with ITW to assist with dorsiflexion. Before bandaging (T0) and immediately (T1) and 1 week (T2) after initial bandaging, the initial contact, loading response, and midstance subphases of gait were analyzed using light pressure sensors and the Edinburgh Visual Gait Score (EVGS). Ten age-matched children with typical gait participated for comparison in T0. The data were analyzed with Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests for within-group comparisons and Mann-Whitney U tests for between-group comparisons. Results: In T0, for the ITW group, no heel contact was observed during stance. In T1, all of the participants achieved heel contact at initial contact and loading response and 56.8% at midstance. In T2, all of the heels continued contact at initial contact and loading response and 54.3% at midstance. The EVGS significantly improved. The Friedman test showed that there were noteworthy improvements between T0-T1 and T0-T2 in video-based observational gait analysis and EVGSs (P < .001), although no difference was found between T1-T2 in video-based observational gait analysis (P = .913) and EVGSs (P = .450). Conclusions: In children with ITW, dorsiflexion assistive functional bandaging was an effective tool to help achieve heel contact on the ground and improve walking quality for a short period after application. Further studies with longer follow-up and larger sample sizes are required to confirm the long-term therapeutic effects of this promising functional bandaging. Publication Open AccessNormative Values for Cervical and Lumbar Range of Motion in Healthy Young Adults(Galenos Publishing House, 2023) APTİ, ADNAN; Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Akçay, BurçinObjective: The cervical and lumbar spines are the more mobile parts of the spinal column than the thoracic spine. Reference range of motion (ROM) measurements is one of the important clinical outcome measures used in patient assessment and follow-up of treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to obtain normative values of cervical and lumbar ROM in young adults. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 300 healthy volunteers (198 female, 102 male, mean age: 21.4±1.9 years, range, 18-29 years). Cervical (C) and lumbar (L) ROM values were measured in three planes with a two-arm digital goniometer according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) criteria. The mean ROM measurements were analyzed according to gender using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Cervical ROM values were determined to be: cervical flexion 57.7±8.2º, extension 59.1±10.2º, right-left lateral flexion 42.1±7.9º-41.4±7.7º, and right-left rotation 71.1±10.5º-70.2±9.7º. There was no statistically significant difference between the genders with respect to the cervical ROM (p>0.05). The lumbar ROM values were determined to be lumbar flexion 69.9±14.5º, extension 40±10.2º, right-left lateral flexion 36.3±6.4º-36.2±6.6º, and right-left rotation 38.4±8.7º-38.6±9.4º. The lumbar flexion ROM values were statistically significantly higher in females than in males (p=0.043). Conclusion: The flexion and extension angles of the lumbar spine in the sagittal plane were higher in females than in males, and there was no difference between the genders regarding all the other cervical and lumbar joint ROM values. These goniometrically measured cervical and lumbar ROM values were found to be generally similar to the widely used reference values of AAOS and Kendall McCreary. Further research is needed on the effects of individual differences such as physical activity or inactivity. Publication RestrictedAdaptation, Reliability, and Validation of the Turkish Version of the Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis(Wolters Kluwer Health, 2023) Akçay, Burçin; Kuru Çolak, Tuǧba; APTİ, ADNANBackground:There is a limited number of disease-specific outcome measurement scales in Turkish, which can be used for individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The aim of this study was to translate, adapt, and evaluate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity (TRv.BSSQD) questionnaire in Turkish patients with AIS.Objective(s):After the translation and back-translation process, the TRv.BSSQD and Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaires were completed in face-to-face interviews with 49 patients with AIS. The TRv.BSSQD questionnaire was readministered to the same patients 2 weeks later to assess test-retest reliability.Results:The Cronbach alpha value calculated for internal reliability was 0.806. The intraclass correlation coefficient values of the items of the TRv.BSSQD ranged from 0.809 (P < 0.001) (question 8) to 0.955 (P < 0.001) (question 7). The test-retest correlation coefficient for the item-total score was 0.960 (P < 0.001). Validity analysis showed a significantly positive correlation between the TRv.BSSQD total score and pain, self-image, and mental subgroup and the total scores of the SRS-22r scale (P < 0.05).Conclusions:This patient-reported outcome instrument, the TRv.BSSQD, showed good internal consistency, good reliability with test-retest analysis, and construct validity, suggesting that it is an appropriate assessment instrument for Turkish patients with AIS. Publication RestrictedTranslation, Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of Scoliosis Japanese Questionnaire-27 in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis(Springer, 2023) Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; APTİ, ADNAN; Çolak, İlker; Akçay, Burçin; Dereli, Elif ElçinPurposeDisease-specific scales which evaluate QoL are needed to evaluate treatment outcomes, and to compare the effects of different treatments. The outcome measures evaluating quality of life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Scoliosis Japanese Questionnaire-27 (SJ-27) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.MethodsThe SJ-27 questionnaire was translated into Turkish and 61 female patients filled out the translated version (TRv.SJ-27) twice to measure the test-retest reliability of the scale. Internal reliability of the questionnaire was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The intraclass correlation coefficient was analysed for each item. Discriminant validity and convergent validity were determined by correlations with Cobb angle, ATR and the SRS-22r scale.ResultsThe mean Cobb angle was 25.8 degrees and the ATR angle was 8.8 degrees. Cronbach's alpha value was estimated as 0.935. The test-retest correlation coefficient for the item-total score was 0.877 (p = 0.000). Validity analysis showed a significantly positive correlation between the TRv.SJ-27 total score and Cobb and ATR angles, and a significantly negative relationship was found between the TRv.SJ-27 and SRS-22r scores.ConclusionsIt would be useful to use different outcome measures to assess the scoliosis-specific quality of life in clinical practice and research. The findings suggest that the Turkish version of Scoliosis Japanese Questionnaire-27 is a valid and reliable measure to assess Turkish patients with AIS. Publication Open AccessComparison of Kinesio Taping, Trigger Point Injection, and Neural Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Study(Kare Publishing, 2023) Ay, Saime; Tur, Birkan Sonel; Karakaş, Merve; Gökmen, Derya; ALTINBİLEK, TURGAY; Evcik, DenizObjectives: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional painful soft-tissue disorder, characterized by trigger points (TrPs) and taut bands in the muscles. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of kinesio taping (KT), TrPs injection, and neural therapy (NT) on pain and disability in acute MPS.Methods: 104 patients with MPS in the cervical region were allocated into three groups. Group 1 (n=35) were treated with KT, Group 2 (n=35) received local anesthetic (LA) (lidocaine of 0.5%) TrPs injection, and Group 3 (n=34) received NT with the same LA solution. Patients were assessed by means of pain, pressure pain threshold (PPT), and disability. Pain severity was measured by Visual Analog Scale. The neck pain disability scale was used for assessing disability. PPT was measured by using an algometer. Measurements were taken before and after treatment of 3(rd) and 7(th) days.Results: There were improvements on pain and disability in all groups at the end of treatments at 3(rd) day and during follow-up period (p<0.001) and no differences were found between the groups. There was significant difference in PPT values in TrPs injection and NT groups in comparisons between all time periods, however, the change, depending on time in the KT group, was not statistically significant.Conclusion: The results of this study show that all these three treatment methods found to be effective on pain relief and disability in acute MPS. In terms of PPT, injection treatments seem to be superior than KT. Publication RestrictedEffects of Pilates Exercises on Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Scoping Review of the Literature(Springer, 2023) Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Akçay, Burçin; APTİ, ADNANPurpose Scoliosis is a deformity involving changes in three planes. These changes include lateral curvature in the frontal plane, changes in physiological thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles in the sagittal plane, and rotation of the vertebrae in the transverse plane. The aim of this scoping review was to review and summarize the available literature to determine whether Pilates exercises are an effective treatment for scoliosis.MethodsThe Cochrane Library (reviews, protocols, trials), PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid, Scopus, PEDro, Medline, CINAHL (EBSCO), ProQuest, and Google Scholar electronic databases were used to search for published articles from inception to February 2022. All the searches included English language studies. Keywords were determined as "scoliosis and Pilates" or "idiopathic scoliosis and Pilates", "curve and Pilates", "spinal deformity and Pilates."Results Seven studies were included; one study was a meta-analysis study, three studies compared Pilates and Schroth exercises, and three applied Pilates exercises in combined therapy. The studies included in this review used outcome measurements of Cobb angle, ATR, chest expansion, SRS-22r, posture assessment, weight distribution, and psychological factors such as depression.ConclusionsThe results of this review suggest that the level of evidence regarding the effect of Pilates exercises on scoliosis-related deformity is very limited. Pilates exercises can be applied to reduce asymmetrical posture in individuals with mild scoliosis with reduced growth potential and progression risk. Publication Open AccessThe Effectiveness of the Schroth Best Practice Program and Cheneau-Type Brace Treatment in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Long-Term Follow-Up Evaluation Results(MDPI, 2023) Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Akçay, Burçin; APTİ, ADNAN; Çolak, İlkerBackground: Although the number of studies showing the efficacy of conservative treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has increased, studies with long-term follow-up are very limited. The aim of this study was to present the long-term effects of a conservative management method including exercise and brace in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with idiopathic scoliosis who presented at our department and were followed up for at least 2 years after completing the treatment. The main outcome measurements were the Cobb angle and angle of trunk rotation (ATR). Results: The cohort participants were 90.4% female, with a mean age of 11 years and the maximum Cobb angle was mean 32.1 degrees. The mean post-treatment follow-up period was 27.8 months (range 24-71 months). The improvements after treatment in mean maximum Cobb angle (p < 0.001) and ATR (p = 0.001) were statistically significant. At the end of treatment, the maximum Cobb angle was improved in 88.1% of the patients and worsened in 11.9% compared to baseline. In the long-term follow-up evaluations, 83.3% of the curvatures remained stable. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that moderate idiopathic scoliosis in growing adolescents can be successfully halted with appropriate conservative treatment and that long-term improvement is largely maintained. Publication RestrictedOccupational Self-Perception Level Effects on the Development of Kinesiophobia in Individuals With Total Knee Arthroplasty(Elsevier, 2023) Yılmaz, Güleser Güney; AKEL, BURCU SEMİN; SAİTOĞLU, YELİZ SEVİMLİ; Akı, EsraIntroduction: The development of kinesiophobia after Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) has been one of the important issues. However, the early results and the presence of kinesiophobia before surgery have not been adequately investigated. In addition, the effects of factors such as pain perception, postoperative pain level, and demographic characteristics were mentioned. However, occupational factors such as occupational expectations and occupational self-perception level have not been adequately investigated.Methods: Each assessment tool was administered three times: once on the first day of the preoperative period and then again at the third and sixth weeks after the surgery. The assessment tools employed were the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Occupational Self Assessment, and Timed Up and Go test. To analyze the differences in Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia scores, a one-way ANOVA was con-ducted. Subsequently, the patients were categorized into two groups based on their level of kinesiophobia: high and low. Independent sample t-tests were employed to compare continuous and normally distributed data be-tween the two groups, while the Mann-Whitney U test was used for non-normally distributed data. The Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to assess the relationship between continuous data, whereas the Spearman rank-order correlation was employed for non-normally distributed data. Results: High levels of kinesiophobia were identified in individuals both prior to and following surgery. Signif-icant differences were observed between the high and low kinesiophobia groups in terms of the mean OSA Competency (p < 0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups in relation to the other evaluation scores during the follow-up periods. Furthermore, a negative correlation was observed between TSK score and OSA Competence results (p < 0.05).Conclusion: Occupational self-perception levels effect the level of kinesiophobia in individuals with TKA and high rates of kinesiophobia observed before the surgery intensified after the surgery, especially in the early period. It may be necessary to focus more on factors such as individual factors, individuals' values, habits, and beliefs. Publication Open AccessDetermination of Somatotypes of Children With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Its Relationship With Scoliosis(Bayrakol Medical Publisher, 2023) APTİ, ADNAN; Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Akçay, Burçin; Çolak, İlkerAim: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine. In adolescence, body morphology can change for various reasons such as genetics, nutrition, and level of physical activity. It has been reported that there are differences in the normal physical growth pattern in children with AIS, which may be due to hormonal changes. The relationship between body morphology and scoliosis is questionable because of the differences that scoliosis creates in the spinal structure. The aim of this study was to define the somatotype characteristics of children with AIS and compare the somatotypes with healthy, age and sex-matched controls.Material and Methods: A retrospective evaluation was performed on 38 children with AIS and 27 age-matched healthy control subjects. Cobb angles and angle of trunk rotation (ATR) values were used to determine scoliosis and trunk gibbosity. Cobb angles were measured on standing anterior-posterior radiographs and the ATR using Adam's forward bending test with a scoliometer. Somatotypes were defined according to the Heath-Carter method and body morphology was categorized into three different components: endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy.Results: Ectomorphy was the dominant type in the AIS group, and endomorphy was the dominant type in the control group. The endomorphic somatotype in individuals with scoliosis was determined at a statistically significantly lower rate than in the control group (p=0.048). There was a moderate negative correlation (p=0.001, r=-0.466) between the Cobb angle and the values of the endomorphy component, and between the ATR and the endomorphy values (p=0.010, r=-0.318).Discussion: The lower rate of endomorphic somatotype was an evident difference in children with scoliosis. These differences may cause problems in the growth and development of the spine and the skeletal structures attached to the spine during adolescence when rapid growth and development occur. Whether this difference is related to nutrition, genetic and hormonal factors, or psychosocial factors remains to be determined. Publication Open AccessDoes Increased Femoral Anteversion Can Cause Hip Abductor Muscle Weakness?(MDPI, 2023) APTİ, ADNAN; AKALAN, NAZİF EKİNBackground: Increased femoral anteversion (IFA) causes functional problems (i.e., tripping, frequently falling, and fatigue) by affecting the pelvis and lower extremity biomechanics. In the frontal plane, increased contralateral pelvic drop and ipsilateral hip adduction, which are mainly considered deteriorated hip abductor muscle mechanisms, are associated with hip and knee injuries. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of femoral anteversion on hip abductor weakness and frontal plane pelvis-hip biomechanics during walking. Methods: The study included nine subjects with increased femoral anteversion and a control group of eleven subjects. Maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) values of the hip abductor muscles were measured with a handheld dynamometer. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed for kinetic, kinematic, and temporo-spatial gait parameters. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). Results: There was no significant difference found between the MIVC values of the IFA and control groups (p = 0.14). Moreover, no significant difference was determined between the ipsilateral peak hip adduction (p = 0.088) and contralateral pelvic drop (p = 0.149) in the stance phase. Additionally, there was no correlation between the peak hip adduction angle in the stance phase and normalized MIVC values in the IFA group (r = -0.198, p = 0.44), or in the control group (r = -0.174, p = 0.55). The deviations of pelvic rotation (p = 0.022), hip internal rotation (p = 0.003), and internal foot progression (p = 0.022), were found to be higher in the IFA group than in the controls. Conclusions: IFA may not be associated with hip abductor muscle weakness, and it may not lead to the hip adduction and pelvic depression that can be seen in hip abductor weakness. Increased pelvic rotation and internal hip rotation during walking might be considered as a compensation for the femoral head-acetabulum alignment mechanism in the frontal plane. Publication RestrictedIncreased Femoral Anteversion May Not Cause Hip Abductor Muscle Weakness During Walking(Elsevier Ireland Ltd., 2023) APTİ, ADNAN; AKALAN, NAZİF EKİN; KUCHIMOV, SHAVKAT; Temelli, Yener Publication RestrictedThe Effect of Wearing High Heels on Lower Extremity Kinematics During Walking for Female with Hypermobility(Elsevier Ireland Ltd., 2023) AYAN, BUSE; AKALAN, NAZİF EKİN; ÖNERGE, KÜBRA; KUCHIMOV, SHAVKAT; EVRENDİLEK, HALENUR Publication RestrictedKinematic Analysis of Walking of Hypermobile and Non-Hypermobile Individuals with Heavy Backpack(Elsevier Ireland Ltd., 2023) OPAN, İREM; Uzunoğlu, Gamze Ertürk; AKALAN, NAZİF EKİN; ÖNERGE, KÜBRA; KUCHIMOV, SHAVKAT; EVRENDİLEK, HALENUR Publication Metadata onlyReliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of Body Attitude Test in Women with Breast Cancer(Springer, 2022) Şahin, Sedef; Huri, Meral; Köse, Barkın; AKEL, BURCU SEMİN; Probst, MichelThis study aims to examine the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Body Attitude Test among women with breast cancer. The study included 101 voluntary women with breast cancer stage 1, 2 or 3 from different regions of Turkey. The Turkish versions of Body Attitude Test, Body Shape Questionnaire and Eating Attitudes Test were applied twice with a 7- day interval. The test demonstrated high test-retest reliability (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient = 0.95) with a good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.82; McDonald’s omega = 0.89) for all domains. The confirmatory factor analysis resulted in 4 factor structures and at an acceptable good fit-in with x2/df for BAT. The Body Attitude Test correlated strongly with the Body Shape Questionnaire and Eating Attitudes Test (p < 0.05). The results support the Turkish version of the test is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to measure the body attitude of women with breast cancer. This test can be used as an appropriate measurement tool in assessing the subjective attitude towards the body in women with breast cancer. © 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Publication Open AccessTime Difference Between Onsets of Lateral and Medial Hamstring Muscles During Gait in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain: A Preliminary Study(Marmara Univ., Inst Health Sciences, 2022) Coşkunsu, Dilber Karagözoğlu; Can, Filiz; Kuchimovs, Shavkat; AKALAN, NAZİF EKİN; Kılıçoğlu, İ. Önder; Öztürk, NeclaObjective: Early activation of lateral hamstrings (LH) relative to medial hamstrings (MH) has been thought to be the cause of abnormal knee abduction and external rotation of the tibia, which affects the orientation of patellar tendon and increases lateral patellofemoral compression. Therefore, early activation of LH relative to MH is considered to have a role in the patellofemoral pain (PFP). The aim of this study was to investigate the time difference between MH and LH onsets in patients with PFP during gait. Methods: Thirteen patients with bilateral PFP (mean age 28.73 +/- 7.44 years) and 13 asymptomatic subjects (mean age 30.47 +/- 6.22 years) were recruited in the study. Gait analysis was performed using the ELITE system (BTS, Milano-Italy) with video cameras (TVC, BTS, Milano-Italy). Participants were requested to walk at a self-selected speed on a force platform, and EMG data were recorded from MH and LH muscles for 10 initial contacts by using TELEEMG (BTS, Milano-Italy). Time difference between the onsets of the MH and LH was calculated for each initial contact by using moving averaging method, then their mean was obtained for each participant. Results: The time difference between onsets of MH and LH was - 26.9 +/- 22.2 ms for PFP subjects and - 11.2 +/- 14.2 ms for control subjects, and LH mainly became activated earlier compared to MH in most of the subjects in both groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the time differences of the groups (p=0.041). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that LH displayed an earlier activation in subjects with PFP compared to control subjects during gait. Publication RestrictedTime-Use, Occupational Balance, and Temporal Life Satisfaction of University Students in Turkey During Isolation Period of COVID-19(Taylor & Francis Australia, 2022) Salar, Sinem; Pekçetin, Serkan; Günal, Ayla; AKEL, BURCU SEMİNPeople all over the world have needed to adapt to social distancing, movement restrictions, and change in life routines due to Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). This study aimed to explore the relationships between time-use, occupational balance, and temporal life satisfaction of university students in Turkey during the social isolation period due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study was conducted online in May 2020, with 128 university students of a Turkish university with the mean age of 20.27 +/- 1.49 years (Min. 18 - Max. 26 years old) from 37 cities. The measures used were the Occupational Balance Questionnaire (OBQ), the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale (TSWLS), and a customized question about the time-use of the students in specific occupational domains. The results indicated that individuals with lower occupational balance had less present life satisfaction (p < .001). While the time allocated to study lessons, socialization, and exercise had small positive correlations with OBQ (p <.01), watching TV had a negative correlation with OBQ (p <.05) and with 'present TSWLS' (p <.01). The mean value of 'present TSWLS' (15.45 +/- 7.54) was lower than 'past TSWLS' (21.57 +/- 6.27) and 'future TSWLS' (22.64 +/- 4.60). Evaluation of occupational balance and the time use patterns of university students during the isolation periods could be important due to its relationship with life satisfaction. This issue raises the potential need for preventive occupation-based interventions to address the mental health of the community. Publication RestrictedThe Effect of Kinesiophobia on Physical Activity, Balance, and Fear of Falling in Patients with Parkinson's Disease(Taylor & Francis Inc., 2022) Oğuz, Semra; UZUNOĞLU, GAMZE ERTÜRK; Polat, Mine Gülden; Apaydın, HülyaPurpose Kinesiophobia is defined as the fear of movement and activity resulting from a feeling of vulnerability to painful injury or re-injury. This study aimed to determine the effect of kinesiophobia on physical activity, balance, and fear of falling in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods The study, which was designed as a cross-sectional type, was conducted with 86 patients with Parkinson's disease (age 61.25 SD [9.72] years old) by face-to-face interviews with the patients. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form, Berg Balance Scale, Falls Efficacy Scale, Visual Analog Scale - Fear of Falling, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale - motor score, and the Hoehn and Yahr scale were used to evaluate the patients. Results Patients with Parkinson's disease who had high levels of kinesiophobia had lower levels of physical activity, worse balance, and higher disease severity and fear of falling. A correlation was found between the Tampa Scale score and physical activity, balance, fear of falling, falls efficacy, and disease motor score (p r = -0.38, -0.54, 0.67, 0.57, and 0.37, respectively). According to multiple linear regression analysis, kinesiophobia explained the dependent variables to varying degrees ranging from 13% to 44% (p < .001). Conclusions Patients with Parkinson's disease may have kinesiophobia. Rehabilitation programs to support functional capacity for these patients should be developed considering the presence of kinesiophobia. Publication Open AccessWhat Information Do Teenagers with Idiopathic Scoliosis and Their Families Need When First Diagnosed?(Erkan Mor, 2021) Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Akçay, Burçin; APTİ, ADNAN; Çolak, İlker; Bettany-Saltikov, JosetteObjective: The aim of this study was to determine the information needs of individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and theirfamilies when the disease was first diagnosed.Materials and Methods: A total of 117 patients with AIS and their parents volunteered to participate in this study. A survey developed specificallyto assess the information needs of AIS patients and their families was sent by e-mail. Of the AIS patients, 59.8% were aged >16 years andcompleted the survey alone, and 40.2% were aged <16 years and they completed the survey together with their parents.Results: The results of this study demonstrated that in the initial diagnosis, scoliosis could be observed even if the angle was <20°. Generally,scoliosis was first noticed by the child’s mother. As expected, at the time of the initial diagnosis, the children diagnosed as having scoliosis wereupset and confused and their parents also felt upset and worried. The information most needed was reported to be answers to the questions of“Will it get better, what are the causes of scoliosis?”, “What is scoliosis and what are the possible treatment options?”, and the least frequentlyasked question was “Will surgery be needed?”.Conclusion: Clear, accurate, complete, and personalized information is required by patients and their families. This information is essential inenabling patients to make major decisions and to take ownership and responsibility for the decision. Involvement in decision-making helps toimprove compliance with treatment and finally also improves satisfaction with the agreed treatment method used. Publication Open AccessThe Reliability of the Augmented Lehnert-Schroth and Rigo Classification in Scoliosis Management(AOSIS, 2021) Akçay, Burçin; Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; APTİ, ADNAN; Çolak, İlker; Kızıltaş, ÖnderBackground: In pattern-specific scoliosis exercises and bracing, the corrective treatment plan differs according to different curve patterns. There are a limited number of studies investigating the reliability of the commonly used classifications systems. Objective: To test the reliability of the augmented Lehnert-Schroth (ALS) classification and the Rigo classification. Methods: X-rays and posterior photographs of 45 patients with scoliosis were sent by the first author to three clinicians twice at 1-week intervals. The clinicians classified images according to the ALS and Rigo classifications, and the data were analysed using SPSS V-16. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and standard error measurement (SEM) were calculated to evaluate the inter-and intra-observer reliability. Results: The inter-observer ICC values were 0.552 (ALS), 0.452 (Rigo) for X-ray images and 0.494 (ALS), 0.518 (Rigo) for the photographs. The average intra-observer ICC value was 0.720 (ALS), 0.581 (Rigo) for the X-ray images and 0.726 (ALS) and 0.467 (Rigo) for the photographs. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate moderate inter-observer reliability for X-ray images using the ALS classification and clinical photographs using the Rigo classification. Intra-observer reliability was moderate to good for X-ray images and clinical photographs using the ALS classification and poor to moderate for X-ray and clinical photographs using the Rigo classification. Publication RestrictedDetermining the Relationship Between the Impairment of Selective Voluntary Motor Control and Gait Deviations in Children With Cerebral Palsy Using Simple Video-Based Analyses(Elsevier Ireland Ltd., 2021) Sardogan, Cansu; Muammer, Rasmi; AKALAN, NAZİF EKİN; Sert, Rukiye; Bilgili, FuatBackground: The impairment of selective voluntary motor control (SVMC) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) has been shown to correlate with their gait characteristics using complex 3D gait analysis systems (3DGA); however, this relationship has not been investigated using simple video-based observational gait analysis (VBOGA). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between VBOGA and SVMC of the lower extremities in children with CP. Methods: Forty-two CP children 10.9 +/- 5.7 years old with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-III participated in the study. Their gait characteristics were assessed using the Edinburgh Visual Gait Score (EVGS), and selective voluntary motor control was tested using the Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity (SCALE). Spearman's rho correlation test with Cohen's classification were used in the statistical analyses. Results: The GMFCS levels (r = 0.604, p < 0.001), foot clearance (r = -0.584. p < 0.001), and maximum ankle dorsiflexion (r = -0.567, p < 0.001) during the swing phase had strong correlations with total SCALE scores. There was also a moderate correlation between total SCALE scores and total EVGS (r = -0.494, p < 0.001), knee extension in the terminal swing phase (r = -0.353, p < 0.001), peak sagittal trunk position (r = -0.316, p < 0.005), and maximum lateral shift (r = -0.37, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Impaired lower extremity SVMC was noticeably related to the foot and ankle movements in the swing phase and initial stance during walking as well as the total EVGS scores and sagittal and frontal trunk movements. The SCALE correlations with VBOGA were similar those observed in the complex 3DGA in the literature; therefore, we suggest that SVMC impairment of gait could be evaluated using simple VBOGA. These findings may help to tailor physical therapy programs for CP children to increase their motor control and walking quality.