- PublicationMetadata onlyDecision-making behavior from adolescence to elderly and its relationship with executive functions(2018) Sandor, SerraObjective: In present study, age related changes in decision-making behavior of healthy participants through the years beginning from adolescence and through later maturity as assessed by Iowa Gambling Test and performance differences between gender and age groups were examined and were compared in a cross-sectional design. Considering the confounding effects of participants' executive functions and their impulsivity levels decision-making performances, the correlations with these variables were also investigated. Method: Decision-making behavior of 157 healthy participants with age ranges 13-80 were divided into 4 groups (13-17, 18-35, 36-60, 60 and above). Executive functions were assessed by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and impulsivity was assessed by Barratt Impulsivity Inventory. Results: Between-subjects effects revealed that both gender and age had significant effects on decision-making performance. According to paired comparisons, 1835 age group had significantly higher total net scores than the 13-17 age group. Male participants had significantly higher total net scores than the female participants. Despite each group increased their IGT scores within themselves throughout the test, 13-17 and 60 above groups did not achieve the levels of other groups' scores. No significant correlations were found between impulsivity and decision-making performance, a weak significant correlation was found between perseverative errors and total net scores of decision-making test. Discussion: As expected, an inverted U-shaped developmental pattern of decision-making behavior, which was characterized by an increase in performance that became evident in adolescence and proceeds through early adulthood and which was subsequently followed by a decrease in performance through late maturity was determined in this study.
- PublicationMetadata onlyThe relationship between loneliness, malicious envy, and cyberbullying in emerging adults(Ediciones Univ Salamanca, 2019-12-19) Özden Yıldırım, Melis SerayThe primary purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between loneliness, malicious envy and cyberbullying perpetration of emerging adults. The research group was conducted by 580 emerging adults, aged between 18 and 25. Data was collected with Demo-graphical Information Form, Revised Cyberbullying Inventory, Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale, Virtual Environment Loneliness Scale, Benign and Malicious Envy Scale. Results showed that there are only significant relationships between family loneliness, virtual loneliness, malicious envy, and cyberbullying. Only family loneliness and malicious envy significantly predicted cyberbullying positively. The results indicated that the cyberbullying level of males was higher than the cyberbullying level of females. Moreover, according to their parents' marital status, the results showed that cyberbullying level of emerging adults whose parents had been divorced was higher than emerging adults having intact families. There were no significant differences between the cyberbullying level of emerging adults regarding their demographical facilities such as having a sibling, income level of their family, their living space, relationship status and employment status.
- PublicationMetadata onlyEvaluation of Dissociative Experiences in Forensic Medicine Practice and in the Criminal Justice System: Turkey Sample(2019-11) deniz, derya; 239499Comparing with the other disorders, dissociative disorders are mostly neglected in the criminal justice system. However, many people with dissociative disorders are frequently seen in the justice system rather than the health system. The issue to be considered here is that dissociative disorders may partially or fully affect one's freedom of consciousness and movement. The aim of this research is to investigate the way in which dissociative processes are dealt with in forensic medicine applications and to obtain descriptive and distinctive information about their psychological processes. The research were gone through with suspects and arrestees who are sent to Assembly of the Council of Forensic Medicine for psychiatric observation, by court order. Clinical and Sociodemographic Data Form, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) were extended to the participants. A statistical evaluation were made on the research findings. According to the results of the research, % 30 of the participants had significantly high Dissociative Experiences Scale score. Also the prevalence of criminals having dissociative experiences is higher than the general population and clinical sample. From this perspective, it might be asserted that forensic occasions need a structured and unchanging approach that consider dissociative experiences inevitably.
- PublicationMetadata onlyExamining Borderline Personality Beliefs in terms of Shame, Guilt and Compassion(2019-07) Kozak, Ekin Doğa; 275465Shame and guilt as self-conscious emotions are defined to occur as a result of evaluation of one's own self. The intensity and frequency of these emotions can be related to develop and/or maintain personality disorders. On the other hand, self-compassion which is defined as evaluation of one's own self without judgement can be a protective factor against psychological problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-conscious emotions (shame and guilt) and borderline personality beliefs (BPB) and the role of self-compassion and fear of compassion on this relationship. Data collection was carried out via online questionnaires from 208 volunteer participants from Turkey with an age range between 18 and 56 (M = 26.84, SD = 6.96). Participants were given Demographic Information Form, Guilt and Shame Scale, Borderline Subscale of Personality Belief Scale, Self-Compassion Scale, Fear of Self-Compassion Subscale of Fears of Compassion Scale and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. According to the results, shame was positively while guilt was negatively correlated with borderline personality beliefs. Shame and guilt had a high positive correlation with each other but at the same time their direction of correlation with borderline personality beliefs was opposite. By creating four different categories with high and low ends of shame and guilt scores, their relationship with borderline personality beliefs were reexamined. The results indicated that shame- free guilt category had the lowest borderline personality belief scores. Hierarchical regression analyses were applied in order to discover the predictors of BPB. Shame and guilt explained 17% of the variance of BPB in the first step. In the second step, self-compassion and fear of compassion raised the explained variance to 46%. Mediational effects of self-compassion and fear of compassion were tested via Process Macro. It was found that borderline personality beliefs were mediated by self-compassion and fear of compassion. As results suggest, in treatment interventions of borderline personality beliefs, it is important to cultivate self-compassion and to decrease fear of compassion. The implications of this study would be beneficial for a better understanding of borderline personality.
- PublicationMetadata onlyCognitive Behavioral Therapy in Agoraphobia and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Study(2019-07-17) Ateş, Nida; 245905Presenting Problem In the current case study, 12 sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy process of a 28 years old female, who had agoraphobia and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms according to DSM-5, was presented. The client complained of having anxiety on using any public transportation and avoided being in crowded public places and waiting in line. She also had intense anxiety when she walked alone on the street and near her neighborhood, fear of driving and being a passenger in front seat. On the other hand, these following complains started after she experienced bag snatching case in 2011 and increased symptoms once she had car accident case last year. She stated that she went to a psychiatrist one month ago and then she started taking “250 mg Selectra” per day for a month. All in all, three therapeutic goals have been set with the client. These were being able to comfortably ride in public transportation, being able to walk comfortably in the street while alone, being able to drive and being a passenger in front seat. Case Conceptualisation and Intervention It was found out that the client, who suffered from intense fear walking on the street alone and being outside near her house alone, were associated with her traumatic bag snatching experience. The client was exposed to the snatching case through the medium of imaginative exposure technique. After experiencing bag snatching as well as the impacts of intrusive and critical parenting over the client, the client’s maladaptive beliefs such as over responsibility need for control and excessive guilt were handled and changed by means of cognitive restructuring. Furthermore, the client’s another problem on “fear of driving and being a passenger in front seat” was related with her traumatic car accident that she experienced in the past. These problems based on the client's catastrophic and excessive generalized thoughts after the accident were identified and altered by cognitive restructuring. Moreover, safety and avoidance behaviors of the client were disappeared via behavioral approach. Outcome The goals that include being able to ride comfortably in public transportation, being able to walk comfortably in the street while alone and sitting in front seat of the car were achieved after the intervention. However, due to the fact that the client was out of town during the summer, the client ceased to come to therapy before the target of being able to driving has been achieved. The beliefs that the client should control the environment due to exaggerated risk perception and excessive responsibility and guilt has been discussed and changed in the context of cognitive restructuring. In addition, as a result of the treatment, the client realized that she did not experience neither catastrophic incidences as she expected in absence of safety nor experienced any avoidance behaviors. Review and Evaluation The treatment that included psycho-education about agoraphobia and post-traumatic stress disorder, cognitive restructuring, exposure, breathing and relaxation exercises was detailed in the light of the relevant literature. It is expected to contribute to CBT practice understanding of the agoraphobia based on trauma with the case study presented in this study. Presenting various CBT processes of post traumatic stress disorder cases that include different features such as chronic problems in future studies are required to enrich the relevant literature.