Moleküler Biyoloji ve Genetik Bölümü / Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics

Permanent URI for this collection

Browse

Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 251
  • Publication
    Restricted
    Proinflammatory Cytokine Profile is Critical in Autocrine GH-Triggered Curcumin Resistance Engulf by Atiprimod Cotreatment in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells
    (Springer, 2020) Çoker-Gürkan, Ajda; Özakaltun, Buse; Akdeniz, Berre-Serra; Ergen, Berfin; YERLİKAYA, PINAR OBAKAN; Akkoç, Tunç; Arısan, Elif-Damla
    Active growth hormone (GH) signaling triggers cellular growth and invasion-metastasis in colon, breast, and prostate cancer. Curcumin, an inhibitor of NF-kappa B pathway, is assumed to be a promising anti-carcinogenic agent. Atiprimod is also an anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic agent that induces apoptotic cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma, multiple myeloma, and pituitary adenoma. We aimed to demonstrate the potential additional effect of atiprimod on curcumin-induced apoptotic cell death via cytokine expression profiles in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells with active GH signaling. The effect of curcumin and/or atiprimod on IL-2, IL-4, and IL-17A levels were measured by ELISA assay. MTT cell viability, trypan blue exclusion, and colony formation assays were performed to determine the effect of combined drug exposure on cell viability, growth, and colony formation, respectively. Alteration of the NF-kappa B signaling pathway protein expression profile was determined following curcumin and/or atiprimod exposure by RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Finally, the effect of curcumin with/without atiprimod treatment on Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation and apoptotic cell death was examined by DCFH-DA and Annexin V/PI FACS flow analysis, respectively. Autocrine GH-mediated IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 expressions were downregulated by curcumin treatment. Atiprimod co-treatment increased the inhibitory effect of curcumin on cell viability, proliferation and also increased the curcumin-triggered ROS generation in each GH(+) breast cancer cells. Combined drug exposure increased apoptotic cell death through acting on IL-2, IL-4, and IL-17A secretion. Forced GH-triggered curcumin resistance might be overwhelmed by atiprimod and curcumin co-treatment via modulating NF-kappa B-mediated inflammatory cytokine expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells.
  • Publication
    Restricted
    Epibrassinolide-Induced Autophagy Occurs in an Atg5-Independent Manner Due to Endoplasmic Stress Induction in MEF Cells
    (Springer, 2020) Adacan, Kaan; YERLİKAYA, PINAR OBAKAN; Arısan, Elif Damla; Çoker-Gürkan, Ajda; Kaya, Resul İsmail; Palavan-Ünsal, Narcin
    Epibrassinolide (EBR), a polyhydroxysteroid belongs to plant growth regulator family, brassinosteroids and has been shown to have a similar chemical structure to mammalian steroid hormones. Our findings indicated that EBR could trigger apoptosis in cancer cells via induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, caused by protein folding disturbance in the ER. Normal cells exhibited a remarkable resistance to EBR treatment and avoid from apoptotic cell death. The unfolded protein response clears un/misfolded proteins and restore ER functions. When stress is chronic, cells tend to die due to improper cellular functions. To understand the effect of EBR in non-malign cells, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells were investigated in detail for ER stress biomarkers, autophagy, and polyamine metabolism in this study. Evolutionary conserved autophagy mechanism is a crucial cellular process to clean damaged organelles and protein aggregates through lysosome under the control of autophagy-related genes (ATGs). Cells tend to activate autophagy to promote cell survival under stress conditions. Polyamines are polycationic molecules playing a role in the homeostasis of important cellular events such as cell survival, growth, and, proliferation. The administration of PAs has been markedly extended the lifespan of various organisms via inducing autophagy and inhibiting oxidative stress. Our data indicated that ER stress is induced following EBR treatment in MEF cells as well as MEF Atg5(-/-) cells. In addition, autophagy is activated following EBR treatment by targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR in wildtype (wt) cells. However, EBR-induced autophagy targets ULK1 in MEF cells lacking Atg5 expression. Besides, EBR treatment depleted the PA pool in MEF cells through the alterations of metabolic enzymes. The administration of Spd with EBR further increased autophagic vacuole formation. In conclusion, EBR is an anticancer drug candidate with selective cytotoxicity for cancer cells, in addition the induction of autophagy and PA metabolism are critical for responses of normal cells against EBR.
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oncomir-Associated Chemotherapeutic Drug Resistance Mechanisms in Breast Cancer Tumors
    (TUBITAK - The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, 2021) Mehdizadehtapeh, Leila; YERLİKAYA, PINAR OBAKAN
    Breast cancer, as a heterogenous malign disease among the top five leading causes of cancer death worldwide, is defined as by far the most common malignancy in women. It contributes to 25% of all cancer-associated deaths after menopause. Breast cancer is categorized based on the expression levels of cell surface and intracellular steroid receptors [estrogen, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)], and the treatment approaches frequently include antiestrogen, aromatase inhibitors, and Herceptin. However, the management and prevention strategies due to adverse side effects stress the patients. The unsuccessful treatments cause to raise the drug levels, leading to excessive toxic effects on healthy cells, and the development of multidrug-resistance (MDR) in the tumor cells against chemotherapeutic agents. MDR initially causes the tumor cells to gain a metastatic character, and subsequently, the patients do not respond adequately to treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the most important mechanisms supporting MDR development. ER stress-mediated chemotherapeutic resistance is very common in aggressive tumors. The in vitro and in vivo experiments on breast tumors indicate that ER stress-activated protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)- activating transcription factor (ATF4) signal axis plays an important role in the survival of tumors and metastasis. Besides, ER stress-associated oncogenic microRNAs (miRNAs) induce chemoresistance in breast tumors. We aimed to have a look at the development of resistance mechanisms due to ER stress as well as the involvement of ER stress-associated miRNA regulation following the chemotherapeutic regimen in the human breast tumors. We also aimed to draw attention to potential molecular markers and therapeutic targets.
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Inhibition on JNK Mimics Silencing of Wnt-11 Mediated Cellular Response in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cells
    (MDPI, 2020) Arısan, Elif Damla; RENCÜZOĞULLARI, ÖZGE; Keskin, Buse; Grant, Guy H.; Uysal-Onganer, Pınar
    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers among men, and one of the leading causes of cancer death for men. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is required for several cellular functions, such as survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Wnt-11, a member of the Wnt family, has been identified for its upregulation in PCa; however, downstream signalling of Wnt-11 remains to be fully characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the JNK pathway as a potential downstream factor for Wnt-11 signalling. For this purpose, LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3 PCa cells and normal epithelial PNT1A cells were treated with a specific JNK kinase inhibitor: JNKVIII. Our results showed that JNK inhibition decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and promoted cell death in a cell type-dependent manner. We found that JNK inhibition led to an increase in autophagy and prevented epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in independently growing androgen cells. JNK inhibition and the silencing of Wnt-11 showed similar responses in DU145 and PC-3 cells and decreased metastasis-related biomarkers, cell migration, and invasion. Overall, our results suggest that JNK signalling plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of PCa by mediating Wnt-11 induced signals. Our data highlights that both the JNK pathway and Wnt-11 could be a useful therapeutic target for the combinatory application of current PCa.
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Upregulated Wnt-11 and miR-21 Expression Trigger Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Aggressive Prostate Cancer Cells
    (MDPI, 2020) Arısan, Elif Damla; RENCÜZOĞULLARI, ÖZGE; Freitas, Ines Lua; Radzali, Syanas; Keskin, Buse; Kothari, Archana; Warford, Antony; Uysal-Onganer, Pınar
    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related death among men. microRNAs have been identified as having potential roles in tumorigenesis. An oncomir, miR-21, is commonly highly upregulated in many cancers, including PCa, and showed correlation with the Wnt-signaling axis to increase invasion. Wnt-11 is a developmentally regulated gene and has been found to be upregulated in PCa, but its mechanism is unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of miR-21 and Wnt-11 in PCa in vivo and in vitro. First, different Gleason score PCa tissue samples were used; both miR-21 and Wnt-11 expressions correlate with high Gleason scores in PCa patient tissues. This data then was confirmed with formalin-fixed paraffin cell blocks using PCa cell lines LNCaP and PC3. Cell survival and colony formation studies proved that miR-21 involves in cells' behaviors, as well as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Consistent with the previous data, silencing miR-21 led to significant inhibition of cellular invasiveness. Overall, these results suggest that miR-21 plays a significant role related to Wnt-11 in the pathophysiology of PCa.