Publication Metadata onlyAnalysis of the Lingering Effects of COVID-19 on Distance Education(Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023) KOCAÇINAR, BÜŞRA; QARIZADA, NASIBULLAH; DİKKAYA, CİHAN; AZGUN, EMİRHAN; ELİF, YILDIRIM; AKBULUT, FATMA PATLAREducation has been severely impacted by the spread of the COVID-19 virus. In order to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 virus and maintain education in the current climate, governments have compelled the public to adopt online platforms. Consequently, this decision has affected numerous lives in various ways. To investigate the impact of COVID-19 on students’ education, we amassed a dataset consisting of 10,000 tweets. The motivations of the study are; (i) to analyze the positive, negative, and neutral effects of COVID-19 on education; (ii) to analyze the opinions of stakeholders in their tweets about the transition from formal education to e-learning; (iii) to analyze people’s feelings and reactions to these changes; and (iv) to analyze the effects of different training methods on different groups. We constructed emotion recognition models utilizing shallow and deep techniques, including Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), Long-short Term Memory (LSTM), Random Forest (RF), Naive Bayes (NB), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logical Regression (LR). RF algorithms with a bag-of-words model outperformed with over 80% accuracy in recognizing emotions. Publication Metadata onlySentiment Analysis of Tweets on Online Education During COVID-19(Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023) YAZGAN, HARUN; ÖZBEK, ONUR; GÜNAY, AHMET CAN; AKBULUT, FATMA PATLAR; ELİF, YILDIRIM; KOCAÇINAR, BÜŞRA; ŞENGEL, ÖZNURThe global coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has devastated public health, education, and the economy worldwide. As of December 2022, more than 524 million individuals have been diagnosed with the new coronavirus, and nearly 6 million people have perished as a result of this deadly sickness, according to the World Health Organization. Universities, colleges, and schools are closed to prevent the coronavirus from spreading. Therefore, distance learning became a required method of advancing the educational system in contemporary society. Adjusting to the new educational system was challenging for both students and instructors, which resulted in a variety of complications. People began to spend more time at home; thus, social media usage rose globally throughout the epidemic. On social media channels such as Twitter, people discussed online schooling. Some individuals viewed online schooling as superior, while others viewed it as a failure. This study analyzes the attitudes of individuals toward distance education during the pandemic. Sentiment analysis was performed using natural language processing (NLP) and deep learning methods. Recurrent neural network (RNN) and one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1DCNN)-based network models were used during the experiments to classify neutral, positive, and negative contents. Publication Open AccessInvestigating the Effects of Stress on Achievement: BIOSTRESS Dataset(Elsevier Inc., 2023) ÇÖPÜRKAYA, ÇAĞLA; MERİÇ, ELİF; ERİK, ELİF BERRA; KOCAÇINAR, BÜŞRA; AKBULUT, FATMA PATLAR; Çatal, ÇağatayThe effects of chronic stress on academic and professional achievement can have a substantial impact. This relationship is highlighted through a dataset that includes questionnaires and physiological data from a group of individuals. The questionnaire data of 48 individuals, the physiological data of 20 individuals during sessions with a psychologist, and the exam data of 8 individuals were analyzed. The questionnaire data collected includes demographic information and scores on the TOAD stress scale. Physiological data was captured using the Empatica e4, a wearable device, which measured various signals such as blood volume pulse, electrodermal activity, body temperature, interbeat intervals, heart rate, and 3-axis accelerometer data. These measurements were taken under different stress conditions, both high and low, during therapy sessions and an exam respectively. Overall, this study significantly contributes to our understanding of how stress affects achievement. By providing a large dataset consisting of questionnaires and physiological data, this research helps researchers gain a better understanding of the complex relationship between stress and achievement. It also enables them to develop innovative strategies for managing stress and enhancing academic and professional success. Publication RestrictedMulti-Modal Fusion Learning Through Biosignal, Audio, and Visual Content for Detection of Mental Stress(Springer London Ltd., 2023) GÜLİN, DOĞAN; AKBULUT, FATMA PATLARMental stress is a significant risk factor for several maladies and can negatively impact a person's quality of life, including their work and personal relationships. Traditional methods of detecting mental stress through interviews and questionnaires may not capture individuals' instantaneous emotional responses. In this study, the method of experience sampling was used to analyze the participants' immediate affective responses, which provides a more comprehensive and dynamic understanding of the participants' experiences. WorkStress3D dataset was compiled using information gathered from 20 participants for three distinct modalities. During an average of one week, 175 h of data containing physiological signals such as BVP, EDA, and body temperature, as well as facial expressions and auditory data, were collected from a single subject. We present a novel fusion model that uses double-early fusion approaches to combine data from multiple modalities. The model's F1 score of 0.94 with a loss of 0.18 is very encouraging, showing that it can accurately identify and classify varying degrees of stress. Furthermore, we investigate the utilization of transfer learning techniques to improve the efficacy of our stress detection system. Despite our efforts, we were unable to attain better results than the fusion model. Transfer learning resulted in an accuracy of 0.93 and a loss of 0.17, illustrating the difficulty of adapting pre-trained models to the task of stress analysis. The results we obtained emphasize the significance of multi-modal fusion in stress detection and the importance of selecting the most suitable model architecture for the given task. The proposed fusion model demonstrates its potential for achieving an accurate and robust classification of stress. This research contributes to the field of stress analysis and contributes to the development of effective models for stress detection. Publication Open AccessDeep Learning-Based User Experience Evaluation in Distance Learning(Springer, 2023) SADIGOV, RAHIM; YILDIRIM, ELİF; KOCAÇINAR, BÜŞRA; AKBULUT, FATMA PATLAR; Çatal, ÇağatayThe Covid-19 pandemic caused uncertainties in many different organizations, institutions gained experience in remote working and showed that high-quality distance education is a crucial component in higher education. The main concern in higher education is the impact of distance education on the quality of learning during such a pandemic. Although this type of education may be considered effective and beneficial at first glance, its effectiveness highly depends on a variety of factors such as the availability of online resources and individuals' financial situations. In this study, the effectiveness of e-learning during the Covid-19 pandemic is evaluated using posted tweets, sentiment analysis, and topic modeling techniques. More than 160,000 tweets, addressing conditions related to the major change in the education system, were gathered from Twitter social network and deep learning-based sentiment analysis models and topic models based on latent dirichlet allocation (LDA) algorithm were developed and analyzed. Long short term memory-based sentiment analysis model using word2vec embedding was used to evaluate the opinions of Twitter users during distance education and also, a topic model using the LDA algorithm was built to identify the discussed topics in Twitter. The conducted experiments demonstrate the proposed model achieved an overall accuracy of 76%. Our findings also reveal that the Covid-19 pandemic has negative effects on individuals 54.5% of tweets were associated with negative emotions whereas this was relatively low on emotion reports in the YouGov survey and gender-rescaled emotion scores on Twitter. In parallel, we discuss the impact of the pandemic on education and how users' emotions altered due to the catastrophic changes allied to the education system based on the proposed machine learning-based models.