Publication Open AccessDetermination of HER2/NEU gene amplification and protein overexpression ib bladder transitional cell carcinoma(İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2007-09) Atış, Gökhan; Arısan, Serdar; Ayhan, DalkılınçHER2/neu 185 kDa is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase being a part of epidermal growth factor receptor family. Especially overexpression was shown in breast cancer and treatment procedures targeting this protein are in clinical use. The aim of this study is to show the overexpression of HER2/neu in bladder TCC patients by using immunohistochemical methods. 46 TCC and 15 healthy bladder tissues as a control group were used in the study. Deparafinized tumor specimens were marked by using monoclonal antihuman HER2 protein antibody and the protein was shown by using peroxidase secondary antibody. Non-staining or membrane staining less than 10% were classified as 0, while membrane staining partly more than 10% were 1, poor complete membrane staining or moderate staining more than 10% were 2 and complete membrane strongly staining were classified as 3. Classification 2 and 3 were evaluated as over staining of HER2/neu. Overexpression of HER2/Neu protein were shown in 12/46 (24.5%) of TCC specimens. Overexpression of HER2/neu were detected in 2 (12.5%) of Grade 1, 1 (16.6%) of Grade 2 and 12 (50%) of Grade 3 patients. Overexpression of HER2/Neu protein were positive in 5 (17.8%) of 28 superficial (Ta-T1) tumor specimens and 7 (38.8%) of 18 invasive (T2-T3) tumor specimens. Overexpression of HER2/neu in Grade III tumors were statistically significant when compared with Grade I and Grade II (p=0.012). Overexpression of HER2/neu detected in bladder TCC will be used in clinical setting as a treatment option targeting this protein as in the breast cancer in the future. Publication Open AccessTo chemotaxonomy of willow species(İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2007-09) Kefeli, Valentine; Lininger, Chris; Shultz, RattyWillows could be good objects for water cleaning and landscape rehabilitation. Their reaction on auxin and phenolic quality could be used as chemo-taxonomic factors. In comparison with morphological properties they could be applied for willow species identification. The quality of phenolics may help to identify different plant species. Publication Open AccessPhysiological taxonomy of willow species - dormancy, rooting of cuttings, reaction on auxins(İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2007-09) Kefeli, Valentine; Lininger, Chris; Shultz, RattyCuttings of six willow species were rooted in water (control) and after auxin (indole-3-acetic acid 150 mg/l) treatment. The intensity of the dormancy was determined by the following data: Root formation, shoot development, and reaction on auxin. Silky, weeping, and pussy willows do not have deep dormancy and were sensitive to auxin. The cuttings of purple, autumn and white willows were less active in the rooting process and less sensitive to auxin. These species do not open their buds in favorite laboratory conditions. These physiological characteristics – rooting, bud opening, and reaction to auxin could be used as taxonomic features for willow identification. The rooting of poplar was connected with the position of cutting on the mother plant. The highest intensity of rooting was specific for the basal part of the twig of poplar (Populus nigra). Publication Open Access39 spatial arrangement of the animal male germ cell genome: II. 2d-3d Simulation and visualization of spatial configuration of major chromosome 2 in Drosophila sperm(İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2007-09) Alexandrov, Igor D.; Stepanenko, Victor A.; Alexandrova, Margarita V.Data on the non-random distribution of radiationinduced inversion breakpoints were used as genetic markers for 2D and 3D modeling of the largescale architecture of the chromosome 2 in Drosophila sperm genome at the time of irradiation. During modeling, Gmax program with application of splines, the additional objects and operations as well as the methods of visualization of macromolecular biostructures were employed. A specific megarosette-loop model of spatial arrangement of chromatin fiber in the haploid sperm nucleus can account well for the experimental data. Publication Open AccessFree radicals: Our enemies or friends ?(İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2007-09) Pala, Funda Sibel; Tabakçıoğlu, KıymetFree radicals are atoms or groups of atoms containing at least one unpaired electron in their orbitals and can be formed when oxygen interacts with certain molecules. Once formed these highly reactive radicals can start a chain reaction, like dominoes. Their main danger comes from the damage they can do when they react with important cellular components such as DNA, or the cell membrane. Cells may function poorly or die if this occurs. On the other hand they are playing an important role in natural processes involved in cytotoxicity, defense against microorganisms and neurotransmission etc. There are several enzyme systems within the body that neutralize free radicals. The defense system that prevents the body from free radicals’ damage is called as antioxidants. Antioxidants are molecules which can safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged. Nowadays most people are under the impression that the field of investigation into antioxidants and free radicals is a brand new phenomenon. The aim of this review is to clarify what is the role of free radicals in our metabolism. Publication Open AccessEffective Treatment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis? Invest in Each Player(İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2007-09) Chandawrkar, Akash; Özdinler, P. HandeALS (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that affects corticospinal motor neurons in the cortex, corticobrainstem neurons and the spinal motor neurons in the spinal cord. ALS can develop both due to genetic or sporatic causes. The genetic causes of the disease are largerly unknown, but the cellular interactions between motor neurons and their environment are beginning to elicudate insights into the cellular pathogenesis of the disease. Even though cognition, memory and other brain functions are left intact in patient, the severed motor neuron circuitry leaves them paralyzed. To develop therapeutic approaches in ALS, there is a growing need to understand each and every component of the motor neuron circuitry, and their interaction in detail. In this rewiew, we will introduce cellular components of the complex neurocircuitry and discuss their possible contribution for therapeutic approaches in ALS.