Profile Picture

Email Address

Birth Date

Research Projects

Organizational Units

Job Title


Last Name


First Name



Search Results

Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
  • PublicationRestricted
    Intraoperative Testing of Passive and Active State Mechanics of Spastic Semitendinosus in Conditions Involving Intermuscular Mechanical Interactions and Gait Relevant Joint Positions
    (Elsevier, 2020) Kaya, Cemre S.; Bilgili, Fuat; AKALAN, NAZİF EKİN; Yücesoy, Can A.
    In cerebral palsy (CP) patients suffering pathological knee joint motion, spastic muscle's passive state forces have not been quantified intraoperatively. Besides, assessment of spastic muscle's active state forces in conditions involving intermuscular mechanical interactions and gait relevant joint positions is lacking. Therefore, the source of flexor forces limiting joint motion remains unclear. The aim was to test the following hypotheses: (i) in both passive and active states, spastic semitendinosus (ST) per se shows its highest forces within gait relevant knee angle (KA) range and (ii) due to intermuscular mechanical interactions, the active state forces elevate. Isometric forces (seven children with CP, GMFCS-II) were measured during surgery over a range of KA from flexion to full extension, at hip angle (HA) = 45 degrees and 20 degrees, in four conditions: (I) passive state, (II) individual stimulation of the ST, simultaneous stimulation of the ST (III) with its synergists, and (IV) also with an antagonist. Gait analyses: intraoperative data for KA = 17-61 degrees (HA = 45 degrees) and KA = 0-33 degrees (HA = 20 degrees) represent the loading response and terminal swing, and mid/terminal stance phases of gait, respectively. Intraoperative tests: Passive forces maximally approximated half of peak force in condition II (HA = 45 degrees). Added muscle activations did increase muscle forces significantly (HA = 45 degrees: on average by 42.0% and 72.5%; HA = 20 degrees: maximally by 131.8% and 123.7%, respectively in conditions III and IV, p < 0.01). In conclusion, intermuscular mechanical interactions yield elevated active state forces, which are well above passive state forces. This indicates that intermuscular mechanical interactions may be a source of high flexor forces in CP. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.