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    A Comparative Sectoral Analysis of Industry 4.0 Readiness Levels of Turkish SMEs
    (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2021) EMİR, OĞUZ; GERGİN, ZEYNEP; YÜKSEKTEPE, FADİME; Dündar, Uğurcan; Gençyılmaz, Güneş M.; Çavdarlı, Ali Ihsan
    The concept of Industry 4.0 brings new standards and has an essential impact on business models, work organizations, and processes. Nowadays, companies are enforced to perform such challenges as meeting personal customer requests, flexibility, responsiveness, customer-oriented solutions, and delivering continuous value to survive in the competitive market. The most innovative companies are resourceful to integrate new digital tools into their business models by following initial trends. For Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs), adopting these new industrial challenges, and responding to them quickly is vital when it is considered that they have 99.8% of the enterprise share of Turkey. To do so, an intensive effort is needed to integrate Industry 4.0 applications within the enterprises. It has been suggested in the literature that manufacturing organizations should begin with understanding their current level of maturity by defining their strengths and weaknesses. Further, a significant effort is required with the collaboration of government, academia, and industry leaders to guide enterprises for improving their capabilities in an objective and standardized manner. Despite the diversity of approaches directed to Industry 4.0 concepts, it is not easy to find a study that measures how the manufacturing sector is adopting Industry 4.0 and compares manufacturing sectors with each other. To this end, broad research is initiated in March 2018 to identify the current situation of SMEs in Turkey. In this paper, it is intended to extend the study by providing a comparative sector analysis for manufacturing SMEs in Turkey in terms of Industry 4.0 transformation. Possible action plan suggestions are presented according to the results obtained at the end of the paper. © 2021, The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
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    A Decision Support Tool for Classification of Turkish SMEs’ Industry 4.0 Score Levels
    (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2021) Dündar, Uğurcan; YÜKSEKTEPE, FADİME; GERGİN, ZEYNEP; EMİR, OĞUZ; Gençyılmaz, Güneş M.; Çavdarlı, Ali İhsan
    The concept of industry 4.0 aims to enhance the employment of digitalization with the help of burst in computer usage after the third major revolution in industry. Hence, to keep up with the new trends in industry, companies should transform their processes into digital platforms. In Turkey, 99.8% of the companies are SMEs, so in order to be in the global economic competition Turkey should enable their SMEs to make the process shifts to digitalization. In this manner, in 2018 a project is initiated by KOSGEB to evaluate the readiness of SMEs and help them for Industry 4.0. As the last step of this project, a decision support tool is created with classification algorithm behind. In this paper, chosen instruments are used to predict the Industry 4.0 score of SMEs that are calculated with previously published algorithm in the scope of the project. In terms of classification, three algorithms are compared with ROC metric. CatBoost algorithm which is specifically created for categorical classification is compared with Support Vector Machine algorithms (SVM and µ-SVM) that performed best in previous research. CatBoost outperformed other algorithms and is used as base classification method in decision support tool. This decision support tool will be used in decision making process of KOSGEB to which companies to help. © 2021, The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.