Crystallization Kinetics: Relationship Between Crystal Morphology and the Cooling Rate-Applications for Different Geological Materials

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Aysal, Namık
Kurt, Yiğit
Öztürk, Hüseyin
Yeşiltaş, Mehmet
Laçin, Davut
Öngen, Sinan
Nikitin, Timur

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Crystal morphology is controlled by several physicochemical parameters such as the temperature, pressure, cooling rate, nucleation, diffusion, volatile composition, and viscosity. The development of different crystal morphologies is observed as a function of the cooling rate in many different rock types (i.e., glassy volcanic rocks, and archeometallurgical slags). Crystallization is a two-stage kinetic process that begins with the formation of a nucleus and then continues with the accumulation of ions on it. The shapes of the crystals depend on the degree of undercooling (& UDelta;T), and euhedral crystals, having characteristic forms that reflect their crystallographic internal structure, that grow just below their liquidus temperature. In this study, crystal morphologies in different minerals (e.g., quartz, sanidine, olivine, pyroxene, magnetite, etc.) that had developed in silicic volcanic rocks (spherulites) and slags from ancient mining were investigated and characterized using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (SEM-EDX) spectroscopic techniques. Depending on the increase in the cooling rate, quartz, feldspar, olivine, pyroxene, and magnetite minerals were found to crystallize in subhedral, skeletal, dendritic, spherical, bow-tie and fibrous forms in glassy volcanic rocks and archeometallurgical slags.



Crystallization Kinetics, Undercooling, Crystal Morphology, Archeometallurgical Slags


Aysal N, Kurt Y, Öztürk H, Ildiz GO, Yesiltas M, Laçin D, Öngen S, Nikitin T, Fausto R. Crystallization Kinetics: Relationship between Crystal Morphology and the Cooling Rate—Applications for Different Geological Materials. Crystals. 2023; 13(7):1130.